The Scala Type System: Parameterized Types and Variances, Part 1

The Scala language has been published in 2004 and is continuously developed by EPFL and Typesafe. These activities are funded on the one hand by the European Union and on the other hand by industrial investors. Scala has gained popularity in recent years, and is used more and more in production – also at codecentric. This blog series discusses one aspect of the Scala type system, namely co- and contravariant type parameters (i.e. these weird plus and minus signs in the header of a generic class, as e.g. in class Box[+A]).

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Andreas Schroeder

The Machinery behind Machine Learning – Part 1

Machine Learning is one of the hottest topics on the web. But how do machines learn? And do they learn at all? The answer in most cases is: Machines do not learn, they optimize.

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Stefan Kühn

codecentric go challenge 2014: Final Interviews

The codecentric go challenge 2014 is over. Franz-Josef Dickhut managed to defeat Crazy Stone, one of the two strongest go programs worldwide, in four games with three wins to one. You can replay and download the games at

Congratulations to Franz-Josef Dickhut for winning the match and thanks a lot to codecentric for the sponsoring!

As just before the start of the match, we let the contenders speak for themselves.

Let’s start with the winner, Franz-Josef Dickhut (FJD) (translated from German by the author):
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Dr. Raymond Georg Snatzke